Wizard Of Oz

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Ein Sturm trägt die kleine Dorothy Gayle in das magische Land Oz. Verzweifelt macht sie sich auf den Weg in die Hauptstadt, wo der große Zauberer von Oz lebt. Nur er kann ihre Rückkehr nach Hause ermöglichen. Der Weg dorthin wird zu einer Reise. Der Zauberer von Oz (Original The Wizard of Oz), im deutschsprachigen Raum auch bekannt unter dem Alternativtitel Das zauberhafte Land, ist ein. Der Zauberer von Oz ist ein Kinderbuch des US-amerikanischen Schriftstellers Lyman Frank Baum. Die Erzählung erschien unter dem Originaltitel The. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (The Wizard of Oz Series) (English Edition) eBook: Baum, L. Frank, Denslow, W. W., Hearn, Michael Patrick: anyfma.nl The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (The Oz Series Book 1) (English Edition) eBook: Baum, L. Frank: anyfma.nl: Kindle-Shop.

Wizard Of Oz

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (The Oz Series Book 1) (English Edition) eBook: Baum, L. Frank: anyfma.nl: Kindle-Shop. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (The Wizard of Oz Series) (English Edition) eBook: Baum, L. Frank, Denslow, W. W., Hearn, Michael Patrick: anyfma.nl Veranstaltungen in Berlin: Der Zauberer von Oz. © Komische Based on the fairytale The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by Lyman Frank Baum; Libretto by Paolo.

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Wizard Of Oz

Baum acknowledged the influence of the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen , which he was deliberately revising in his "American fairy tales" to include the wonder without the horrors.

Jocelyn Burdick , former Democratic U. Senator from North Dakota and daughter of Baum's niece, Magdalenda Carpenter Birch, has reported that her mother was likely the inspiration for the Dorothy.

Baum spent "considerable time at the carpenter homestead [ Local legend has it that Oz, also known as The Emerald City, was inspired by a prominent castle-like building in the community of Castle Park near Holland, Michigan , where Baum lived during the summer.

The yellow brick road was derived from a road at that time paved by yellow bricks, located in Peekskill, New York , where Baum attended the Peekskill Military Academy.

Baum was a frequent guest at the hotel and had written several of the Oz books there. Some critics have suggested that Baum may have been inspired by Australia , a relatively new country at the time of the book's original publication.

Australia is often colloquially spelled or referred to as "Oz". Furthermore, in Ozma of Oz , Dorothy gets back to Oz as the result of a storm at sea while she and Uncle Henry are traveling by ship to Australia.

Like Australia, Oz is an island continent somewhere to the west of California with inhabited regions bordering on a great desert.

One might imagine that Baum intended Oz to be Australia, or perhaps a magical land in the center of the great Australian desert.

Carroll rejected the Victorian-era ideology that children's books should be saturated with morals , instead believing that children should be allowed to be children.

Building on Carroll's style of numerous images accompanying the text, Baum combined the conventional features of a fairy tale witches and wizards with the well-known things in his readers' lives scarecrows and cornfields.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is considered by some to be the first American fairy tale because of its references to clear American locations such as Kansas and Omaha.

Baum agreed with authors such as Carroll that fantasy literature was important for children, along with numerous illustrations, but he also wanted to create a story that had recognizable American elements in it, such as farming and industrialization.

Stories such as " Rip Van Winkle ", published in , and " The Legend of Sleepy Hollow ", published in , predate the Oz tales by several decades.

Many of the characters, props, and ideas in the novel were drawn from Baum's experiences. As a child, Baum frequently had nightmares of a scarecrow pursuing him across a field.

Moments before the scarecrow's "ragged hay fingers" nearly gripped his neck, it would fall apart before his eyes. Decades later, as an adult, Baum integrated his tormentor into the novel as the Scarecrow.

He wished to make something captivating for the window displays, so he used an eclectic assortment of scraps to craft a striking figure.

From a washboiler he made a body, from bolted stovepipes he made arms and legs, and from the bottom of a saucepan he made a face. Baum then placed a funnel hat on the figure, which ultimately became the Tin Woodman.

Rockefeller was the nemesis of Baum's father, an oil baron who declined to purchase Standard Oil shares in exchange for selling his own oil refinery.

Baum scholar Evan I. Schwartz posited that Rockefeller inspired one of the Wizard's numerous faces. In one scene in the novel, the Wizard is seen as a "tyrannical, hairless head".

When Rockefeller was 54 years old, the medical condition alopecia caused him to lose every strand of hair on his head, making people fearful of speaking to him.

In the early s, Baum's play Matches was being performed when a "flicker from a kerosene lantern sparked the rafters", causing the Baum opera house to be consumed by flames.

Scholar Evan I. Schwartz suggested that this might have inspired the Scarecrow's severest terror: "There is only one thing in the world I am afraid of.

A lighted match. In , Baum lived in Aberdeen, Dakota Territory , which was experiencing a drought, and he wrote a witty story in his "Our Landlady" column in Aberdeen's The Saturday Pioneer [25] about a farmer who gave green goggles to his horses, causing them to believe that the wood chips that they were eating were pieces of grass.

Similarly, the Wizard made the people in the Emerald City wear green goggles so that they would believe that their city was built from emeralds.

During Baum's short stay in Aberdeen, the dissemination of myths about the plentiful West continued. However, the West, instead of being a wonderland, turned into a wasteland because of a drought and a depression.

In , Baum moved his family from South Dakota to Chicago. At that time, Chicago was getting ready for the World's Columbian Exposition in After discovering that the myths about the West's incalculable riches were baseless, Baum created "an extension of the American frontier in Oz".

In many respects, Baum's creation is similar to the actual frontier save for the fact that the West was still undeveloped at the time.

The Munchkins Dorothy encounters at the beginning of the novel represent farmers, as do the Winkies she later meets. Baum's wife frequently visited her niece, Dorothy Louise Gage.

The infant became gravely sick and died on November 11, , from "congestion of the brain" at exactly five months. When the baby, whom Maud adored as the daughter she never had, died, she was devastated and needed to consume medicine.

Bossed around by his wife Matilda , Henry rarely dissented with her. He flourished in business, though, and his neighbors looked up to him.

Likewise, Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working man" who "looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke". The stories of barbarous acts against accused witches scared Baum.

Two key events in the novel involve wicked witches who both meet their death through metaphorical means. Baum held different jobs, moved a lot, and was exposed to many people, so the inspiration for the story could have been taken from many different aspects of his life.

Baum, a former salesman of china, wrote in chapter 20 about china that had sprung to life. The original illustrator of the novel, W.

Denslow , could also have influenced the story and the way it has been interpreted. Baum and Denslow had a close working relationship and worked together to create the presentation of the story through the images and the text.

Color is an important element of the story and is present throughout the images, with each chapter having a different color representation.

Denslow also added characteristics to his drawings that Baum never described. For example, Denslow drew a house and the gates of the Emerald City with faces on them.

In the later Oz books, John R. Neill , who illustrated all of the sequels, continued to include these faces on gates. One of the earliest illustrators not to include a funnel hat was Russell H.

Schulz in the Whitman Publishing edition--Schulz depicted him wearing a pot on his head. Libico Maraja 's illustrations, which first appeared in a Italian edition and have also appeared in English-language and other editions, are well known for depicting him bareheaded.

Baum did not offer any conclusive proof that he intended his novel to be a political allegory, and for 60 years after the book's publication "virtually nobody" had such an interpretation.

Then, in a American Quarterly article entitled "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism", [35] the American teacher Henry Littlefield posited that the book contained an allegory of the late 19th-century bimetallism debate regarding monetary policy.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has become an established part of multiple cultures, spreading from its early young American readership to becoming known throughout the world.

It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages, at times being modified in local variations. For instance, in some abridged Indian editions, the Tin Woodman was replaced with a horse.

The film adaptation has become a classic of popular culture, shown annually on American television from to and then several times a year every year beginning in There were several Hebrew translations published in Israel.

Thus, for Hebrew readers, this translators' choice added a layer of Biblical connotations absent from the English original.

The New York Times , September 8, [46]. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz received positive critical reviews upon release. In a September review, The New York Times praised the novel, writing that it would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet.

The review also praised the illustrations for being a pleasant complement to the text. During the first 50 years after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ' s publication in , it received little critical analysis from scholars of children's literature.

According to Ruth Berman of Science Fiction Studies , the lists of suggested reading published for juvenile readers never contained Baum's work.

The lack of interest stemmed from the scholars' misgivings about fantasy, as well as to their belief that lengthy series had little literary merit.

It has frequently come under fire over the years. In , the director of Detroit's libraries banned The Wonderful Wizard of Oz for having "no value" for children of his day, for supporting "negativism", and for bringing children's minds to a "cowardly level".

Professor Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz books—love, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better place—seems of no value today", then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books".

In , seven Fundamentalist Christian families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit.

The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class, the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom.

Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era, and it continues to resonate".

The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not, Fisher noted, lessened during the prior years.

In a review, Bill Delaney of Salem Press praised Baum for giving children the opportunity to discover magic in the mundane things in their everyday lives.

He further commended Baum for teaching "millions of children to love reading during their crucial formative years". The Library of Congress has declared The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to be "America's greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale", also naming it the first American fantasy for children and one of the most-read children's books.

After George M. The word "New" was quickly dropped in subsequent printings, leaving the now-familiar shortened title, "The Wizard of Oz," and some minor textual changes were added, such as to "yellow daises," and changing a chapter title from "The Rescue" to "How the Four Were Reunited.

When Baum filed for bankruptcy after his critically and popularly successful film and stage production The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays failed to make back its production costs, Baum lost the rights to all of the books published by what was now called Bobbs-Merrill, and they were licensed to the M.

Copelman had illustrated a new edition of The Magical Monarch of Mo two years earlier. It was not until the book entered the public domain in that new editions, either with the original color plates, or new illustrations, proliferated.

Notable more recent editions are the Pennyroyal edition illustrated by Barry Moser , which was reprinted by the University of California Press , and the The Annotated Wizard of Oz edited by Michael Patrick Hearn heavily revised from a edition that was printed in a wide format that allowed for it to be a facsimile of he original edition with notes and additional illustrations at the sides , which was published by W.

Norton and included all the original color illustrations, as well as supplemental artwork by Denslow. Baum wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz without any thought of a sequel.

After reading the novel, thousands of children wrote letters to him, requesting that he craft another story about Oz. In , he wrote and published the first sequel, The Marvelous Land of Oz , explaining that he grudgingly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand.

Baum also wrote sequels in , , and In his The Emerald City of Oz , he wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world.

The children refused to accept this story, so Baum, in and every year thereafter until his death in May , wrote an Oz book, ultimately writing 13 sequels and half a dozen Oz short stories.

He wrote, "To please a child is a sweet and a lovely thing that warms one's heart and brings its own reward. Until this version, the book had inspired a number of now less well known stage and screen adaptations, including a profitable Broadway musical and three silent films.

The film was considered innovative because of its songs, special effects , and revolutionary use of the new Technicolor. The story has been translated into other languages at least once without permission, resulting in Alexander Volkov 's The Wizard of the Emerald City novel and its sequels, which were translated into English by Sergei Sukhinov and adapted into comics several times.

Following the lapse of the original copyright, the characters have been adapted and reused in spin-offs, unofficial sequels, and reinterpretations, some of which have been controversial in their treatment of Baum's characters.

In , an Esperanto translation of the novel was used by a team of scientists to demonstrate a new method for encoding text in DNA which remains readable after repeated copying [60].

Neill, W. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Baum. For other uses, see The Wonderful Wizard of Oz disambiguation.

This last story of The Wizard is ingeniously woven out of commonplace material. It is, of course, an extravaganza, but will surely be found to appeal strongly to child readers as well as to the younger children, to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children.

There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds, and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

See also: List of Oz books. Main article: Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz. Novels portal. Frank Baum with Pictures by W.

Chicago: Geo. Hill Co. Retrieved February 6, — via the Internet Archive. Rogers, L. Frank Baum, pp. The New York Times.

October 27, Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved December 3, Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original PDF on November 28, Retrieved November 28, Salem Press.

Grand Rapids Herald. September 16, Archived from the original PDF on February 3, Retrieved February 2, Frank ; Hearn, Michael Patrick The Annotated Wizard of Oz.

New York: C. West Fargo Pioneer. Retrieved July 13, The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved February 13, Archived from the original on July 18, Retrieved November 25, Frank Baum".

Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, , p. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Harpers Collins, , p. Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved October 29, University of Chicago Press Retrieved December 23, Follow the yellow brick road to Archived from the original on June 10, Library of Congress , December 20, Archived from the original on January 25, Retrieved January 28, Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved October 22, September 8, Archived from the original PDF on January 18, Retrieved November 26, The Horn Book Magazine.

Library Journals. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on February 7, This was done due to the lack of a suitable "color film" in That would quickly change--but films from years following suffered from hues that faded with the years, even original negatives.

Because "Oz" was actually filmed on a black-and-white base film, the negatives never faded. Now, the tinted filters in the cameras that separated the colors onto the negative strips meant that intense illumination was required, rendering the filming experience miserably hot for the actors involved, especially Lahr.

But they all hold up amazingly well. The Wizard like the Lord helps those who find help within themselves. I feel sorry for the Almira Gulches who can't treasure this film experience.

They need to visit the Emerald City to get their own ticking Testimonials and find their hearts. Didn't bring your broomsticks with you?

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Rate This. Dorothy Gale is swept away from a farm in Kansas to a magical land of Oz in a tornado and embarks on a quest with her new friends to see the Wizard who can help her return home to Kansas and help her friends as well.

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Watch, Rinse, and Repeat "Bleep" the Line! Won 2 Oscars. Edit Cast Complete credited cast: Judy Garland Dorothy Frank Morgan

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LeRoy and Fleming knew they needed to cut at least 15 minutes to get the film down to a manageable running time. The Witch Is Dead ", and a number of smaller dialogue sequences.

This left the final, mostly serious portion of the film with no songs, only the dramatic underscoring. MGM felt that it made the Kansas sequence too long, as well as being far over the heads of the target audience of children.

The studio also thought that it was degrading for Garland to sing in a barnyard. LeRoy, uncredited associate producer Arthur Freed and director Fleming fought to keep it in, and they eventually won.

The song went on to win the Academy Award for Best Song of the Year and came to be identified so strongly with Garland herself that she made it her theme song.

After the preview in San Luis Obispo in early July, the film was officially released in August at its current minute running time.

They continued to perform there after each screening for a week. Garland extended her appearance for two more weeks, partnered with Rooney for a second week and with Oz co-stars Ray Bolger and Bert Lahr for the third and final week.

The film opened nationwide on August 25, It was repeated on December 13, , and gained an even larger television audience, with a Nielsen rating of It became an annual television tradition.

The film was released multiple times to the home-video commercial market on a limited scale on Super 8 film 8 mm format during the s.

These releases include an edited English version roughly 10 minutes, and roughly 20 minutes , as well as edited Spanish versions. In the s, a full commercial release was made on Super 8 on multiple reels.

The film's first LaserDisc release was in In , there were two releases for the 50th anniversary, one from Turner and one from The Criterion Collection , with a commentary track.

Laserdiscs came out in and , and the final LaserDisc was released on September 11, It contained no special features or supplements. On October 19, , Oz was re-released by Warner Bros to celebrate the picture's 60th anniversary, with its soundtrack presented in a new 5.

The DVD also contained a behind-the-scenes documentary, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: The Making of a Movie Classic , produced in and hosted by Angela Lansbury , which was originally shown on television immediately following the telecast of the film.

It had been featured in the "Ultimate Oz" LaserDisc release. Outtakes, the deleted "Jitterbug" musical number, clips of pre Oz adaptations, trailers, newsreels, and a portrait gallery were also included, as well as two radio programs of the era publicizing the film.

In , two DVD editions were released, both featuring a newly restored version of the film with an audio commentary and an isolated music and effects track.

One of the two DVD releases was a "Two-Disc Special Edition", featuring production documentaries, trailers, various outtakes, newsreels, radio shows and still galleries.

The other set, a "Three-Disc Collector's Edition", included these features, as well as the digitally restored 80th-anniversary edition of the feature-length silent film version of The Wizard of Oz , other silent Oz adaptations and a animated short version.

For this edition, Warner Bros. The restoration job was given to Prime Focus World. On December 1, , [66] three Blu-ray discs of the Ultimate Collector's Edition were repackaged as a less expensive "Emerald Edition".

A single-disc Blu-ray, containing the restored movie and all the extra features of the two-disc Special Edition DVD, became available on March 16, Many special editions were released in celebration of the film's 75th anniversary in , including one exclusively by Best Buy a SteelBook of the 3D Blu-ray and another by Target stores that came with a keepsake lunch bag.

Although the re-issue used sepia tone, as in the original film, beginning with the re-issue, and continuing until the film's 50th anniversary VHS release in , the opening Kansas sequences were shown in black and white instead of the sepia tone as originally printed.

This includes television showings. For the film's upcoming 60th anniversary, Warner Bros. In , the film had a very limited re-release in U.

On September 23, , the film was re-released in select theaters for a one-night-only event in honor of its 70th anniversary and as a promotion for various new disc releases later in the month.

An encore of this event took place in theaters on November 17, An IMAX 3D theatrical re-release played at theaters in North America for one week only beginning September 20, , as part of the film's 75th anniversary.

It was the first picture to play at the new theater and served as the grand opening of Hollywood's first 3D IMAX screen. It was also shown as a special presentation at the Toronto International Film Festival.

According to MPAA rules, a film that has been altered in any way from its original version must be submitted for re-classification, and the 3-D conversion fell within that guideline.

Surprisingly, the 3D version received a PG rating for "Some scary moments", although no change was made to the film's original story content. The 2D version still retains its G rating.

The film was re-released by Fathom Events on January 27, 29, 30, and February 3 and 5, as part of its 80th anniversary.

It also had a one-week theatrical engagement in Dolby Cinema on October 25, to commemorate the anniversary.

The Wizard of Oz received widespread acclaim upon its release. Writing for The New York Times , Frank Nugent considered the film a "delightful piece of wonder-working which had the youngsters' eyes shining and brought a quietly amused gleam to the wiser ones of the oldsters.

Not since Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs has anything quite so fantastic succeeded half so well. Nor can they, without a few betraying jolts and split-screen overlappings, bring down from the sky the great soap bubble in which Glinda rides and roll it smoothly into place.

According to Nugent, "Judy Garland's Dorothy is a pert and fresh-faced miss with the wonder-lit eyes of a believer in fairy tales, but the Baum fantasy is at its best when the Scarecrow, the Tin Man, and the Lion are on the move.

Writing in Variety , John C. Flinn predicted that the film was "likely to perform some record-breaking feats of box-office magic," noting, "Some of the scenic passages are so beautiful in design and composition as to stir audiences by their sheer unfoldment.

Harrison's Reports wrote, "Even though some persons are not interested in pictures of this type, it is possible that they will be eager to see this picture just for its technical treatment.

The performances are good, and the incidental music is of considerable aid. Pictures of this caliber bring credit to the industry.

Leo the Lion is privileged to herald this one with his deepest roar—the one that comes from way down—for seldom if indeed ever has the screen been so successful in its approach to fantasy and extravaganza through flesh-and-blood Not all reviews were positive.

Some moviegoers felt that the year-old Garland was slightly too old to play the little girl who Baum intended his Dorothy to be.

Russell Maloney of The New Yorker wrote that the film displayed "no trace of imagination, good taste, or ingenuity" and declared it "a stinkeroo," [86] while Otis Ferguson of The New Republic wrote: "It has dwarfs, music, Technicolor, freak characters, and Judy Garland.

It can't be expected to have a sense of humor, as well — and as for the light touch of fantasy, it weighs like a pound of fruitcake soaking wet. Roger Ebert chose it as one of his Great Films, writing that " The Wizard of Oz has a wonderful surface of comedy and music, special effects and excitement, but we still watch it six decades later because its underlying story penetrates straight to the deepest insecurities of childhood, stirs them and then reassures them.

In his critique of the film for the British Film Institute, author Salman Rushdie acknowledged its affect on him, noting " The Wizard of Oz was my very first literary influence".

In a retrospective article about the film, San Francisco Chronicle film critic and author Mick LaSalle declared that the. The site's critical consensus reads, "An absolute masterpiece whose groundbreaking visuals and deft storytelling are still every bit as resonant, The Wizard of Oz is a must-see film for young and old.

However, for all the risks and cost that MGM undertook to produce the film, it was certainly more successful than anyone thought it would be. The film had been enormously successful as a book, and it had also been a major stage hit, but previous attempts to bring it to the screen had been dismal failures.

Among the many dramatic differences between the film and the novel, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz , are the era , the character of Dorothy Gale , who is not given an age in the novel, but depicted as much younger than Judy Garland in the illustrations, and the magic slippers, which are silver.

We are not told the Tin Woodman's rather gruesome backstory in the film. He started off a human being and kept lopping off bits of himself by accident.

Baum's Oz is divided into regions where people dress in the same color. Munchkins, for example, all wear blue. Obviously this did not lend itself to the brilliant palette that was the hallmark of Technicolor films at the time.

Dorothy's adventures in the book last much longer and take her and her friends to more places in Oz. In the end, her friends are invited to rule different areas of Oz.

In some cases—including the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, the Munchkins in style if not color , Dorothy's long pigtails and the unusual Oz noses—the film's designers were clearly inspired by the book's illustrations by William Wallace Denslow.

In others, including the costumes for the witches, good and bad, they created their own visions of Oz. An official sequel, the animated Journey Back to Oz starring Liza Minnelli , Garland's daughter, was produced to commemorate the original film's 35th anniversary.

Marvel planned a series of sequels based on the subsequent novels. The first, The Marvelous Land of Oz , was published later that year.

The next, The Marvelous Ozma of Oz was expected to be released the following year but never came to be. With a darker story, it fared poorly with critics unfamiliar with the Oz books and was not successful at the box office, although it has since become a popular cult film , with many considering it a more loyal and faithful adaptation of what L.

Frank Baum envisioned. It was a commercial success but received a mixed reception from critics. In , independent film company Clarius Entertainment released a big-budget animated musical film, Legends of Oz: Dorothy's Return , [] which follows Dorothy's second trip to Oz.

The film fared poorly at the box office and was received negatively by critics, largely for its plot and unmemorable musical numbers.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is America's greatest and best-loved home grown fairytale. The first totally American fantasy for children, it is one of the most-read children's books In , Aljean Harmetz wrote The Making of The Wizard of Oz , a detailed description of the creation of the film based on interviews and research; it was updated in Because of their iconic stature, [] the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in the film are now among the most treasured and valuable film memorabilia in movie history.

Adrian , MGM's chief costume designer, was responsible for the final design. There are five known pairs of the ruby slippers in existence.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Baum. Theatrical release poster. Harold Arlen Herbert Stothart.

Release date. Running time. Main article: Musical selections in The Wizard of Oz. Main article: The Wizard of Oz on television.

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The Witness. Archived from the original on September 7, Retrieved September 10, November 25, Archived November 14, , at the Wayback Machine.

World of Entertainment. Avon Books. October 20, University of Texas Press. Keynote address. Indiana University , August New York.

John Canemaker. Aljean Harmetz" PDF. Film Quarterly. Jack Haley Jr Productions. Retrieved September 1, Margaret Hamilton's copper-based makeup as the Wicked Witch was poisonous, so she lived on a liquid diet during the film, and the makeup was carefully cleaned off her each day.

History of Movie Musicals. New York City: Gallery Books. Twenty-First Century Books. June 1, Hal Leonard Corporation. Chicago Review Press.

The Wizardry of Oz. Retrieved August 23, The Wizard of Oz. Retrieved August 21, OUP Oxford. A Movie Timeline". Archived from the original on November 14, Retrieved September 3, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.

Retrieved October 21, Fricke said he believes the first showings were on the 11th, one day before Oconomowoc's preview, on Cape Cod in Dennis, Massachusetts, and in another southeastern Wisconsin community, Kenosha.

Oconomowoc's Strand Theatre was one of three small-town movie theaters across the country where "Oz" premiered in the days prior to its official Hollywood opening on Aug.

It's possible that one of the other two test sites — Kenosha and the Cape Cinema in Dennis, Massachusetts — screened the film a day earlier, but Oconomowoc is the only one to lay claim and embrace the world premiere as its own.

Wisconsin State Journal. August 12, The Hollywood Reporter. November 7, Retrieved October 27, — via Archive. Ballantine Books.

Last telecast: November 3, The last telecast of Ford Star Jubilee , however, was really something special. It was the first airing of what later became a television tradition — Garland's classic film The Wizard of Oz , with Judy's year-old daughter Liza Minnelli and Lahr the Cowardly Lion from the film on hand to introduce it.

TV Since ". January 24, Retrieved July 7, Twilight Sparkle's Retro Media Library. Retrieved June 2, November 22, Retrieved April 20, Retrieved March 6, Prime Focus World.

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New York: Harrison's Reports, Inc. Film Daily : 6. August 10, The New Yorker. Who Put the Rainbow in the Wizard of Oz?

University of Michigan Press. Film Daily : 1. January 12, Retrieved August 30, BFI Pub. Penguin Random House Higher Education.

The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 25, Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 23, Retrieved December 20, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

Retrieved January 23, Retrieved June 18, Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz books—love, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better place—seems of no value today", then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books".

In , seven Fundamentalist Christian families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit.

The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class, the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom.

Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era, and it continues to resonate".

The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not, Fisher noted, lessened during the prior years.

In a review, Bill Delaney of Salem Press praised Baum for giving children the opportunity to discover magic in the mundane things in their everyday lives.

He further commended Baum for teaching "millions of children to love reading during their crucial formative years".

The Library of Congress has declared The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to be "America's greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale", also naming it the first American fantasy for children and one of the most-read children's books.

After George M. The word "New" was quickly dropped in subsequent printings, leaving the now-familiar shortened title, "The Wizard of Oz," and some minor textual changes were added, such as to "yellow daises," and changing a chapter title from "The Rescue" to "How the Four Were Reunited.

When Baum filed for bankruptcy after his critically and popularly successful film and stage production The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays failed to make back its production costs, Baum lost the rights to all of the books published by what was now called Bobbs-Merrill, and they were licensed to the M.

Copelman had illustrated a new edition of The Magical Monarch of Mo two years earlier. It was not until the book entered the public domain in that new editions, either with the original color plates, or new illustrations, proliferated.

Notable more recent editions are the Pennyroyal edition illustrated by Barry Moser , which was reprinted by the University of California Press , and the The Annotated Wizard of Oz edited by Michael Patrick Hearn heavily revised from a edition that was printed in a wide format that allowed for it to be a facsimile of he original edition with notes and additional illustrations at the sides , which was published by W.

Norton and included all the original color illustrations, as well as supplemental artwork by Denslow. Baum wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz without any thought of a sequel.

After reading the novel, thousands of children wrote letters to him, requesting that he craft another story about Oz.

In , he wrote and published the first sequel, The Marvelous Land of Oz , explaining that he grudgingly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand.

Baum also wrote sequels in , , and In his The Emerald City of Oz , he wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world.

The children refused to accept this story, so Baum, in and every year thereafter until his death in May , wrote an Oz book, ultimately writing 13 sequels and half a dozen Oz short stories.

He wrote, "To please a child is a sweet and a lovely thing that warms one's heart and brings its own reward. Until this version, the book had inspired a number of now less well known stage and screen adaptations, including a profitable Broadway musical and three silent films.

The film was considered innovative because of its songs, special effects , and revolutionary use of the new Technicolor.

The story has been translated into other languages at least once without permission, resulting in Alexander Volkov 's The Wizard of the Emerald City novel and its sequels, which were translated into English by Sergei Sukhinov and adapted into comics several times.

Following the lapse of the original copyright, the characters have been adapted and reused in spin-offs, unofficial sequels, and reinterpretations, some of which have been controversial in their treatment of Baum's characters.

In , an Esperanto translation of the novel was used by a team of scientists to demonstrate a new method for encoding text in DNA which remains readable after repeated copying [60].

Neill, W. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Baum. For other uses, see The Wonderful Wizard of Oz disambiguation. This last story of The Wizard is ingeniously woven out of commonplace material.

It is, of course, an extravaganza, but will surely be found to appeal strongly to child readers as well as to the younger children, to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children.

There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds, and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

See also: List of Oz books. Main article: Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz. Novels portal. Frank Baum with Pictures by W.

Chicago: Geo. Hill Co. Retrieved February 6, — via the Internet Archive. Rogers, L. Frank Baum, pp. The New York Times.

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New York: C. West Fargo Pioneer. Retrieved July 13, The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved February 13, Archived from the original on July 18, Retrieved November 25, Frank Baum".

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Library Journals. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on February 7, Greene and Dick Martin. The Oz Scrapbook.

Smithsonian Institution. The Florida Times-Union. Associated Press. Archived from the original on August 13, Retrieved July 26, Abrams, Dennis; Zimmer, Kyle New York: Infobase Publishing.

Aycock, Colleen and Mark Scott Barrett, Laura Southern Illinois University. Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved March 7, To Please a Child.

Berman, Ruth November Science Fiction Studies. DePauw University. Archived from the original on October 2, Retrieved November 27, Bloom, Harold Classic Fantasy Writers.

New York: Chelsea House Publishers. Carpenter, Angelica Shirley; Shirley, Jean Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz.

Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group. Culver, Stuart. Culver, Stuart University of California Press 21 : 97— Dighe, Ranjit S.

Greene, David L. Random House. Hanff, Peter E and Douglas G. Greene The International Wizard of Oz Club. Journal of Economic Education.

Hearn, Michael Patrick ed. Florida State University. Retrieved June 14, Littlefield, Henry M. American Quarterly.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Archived from the original on August 19, Nathanson, Paul Parker, David B. Rockoff, Hugh.

Frank Baum: Creator of Oz. New York: St. Martin's Press. Schwartz, Evan I. Finding Oz: how L. Frank Baum discovered the Great American story.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Sherman, Fraser A. The Wizard of Oz catalog: L. Frank Baum's novel, its sequels and their adaptations for stage, television, movies, radio, music videos, comic books, commercials and more.

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Audio help More spoken articles. John R. Political interpretations Copyright status. Adaptations and other derivative works.

Frank Baum bibliography. Gottschalk Nathaniel D. The Dreamer of Oz: The L. Frank Baum Story film. Fantasy fiction. History Literature Magic Sources.

Anime Films Television programs. Tolkien World Fantasy Convention. Outline Category.

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